Who was the Prophet Muhammad?

When you start studying the life of the prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, you will get to know the real side of his life, the features of his personality, the extent of the suffering he encountered in spreading the Islamic religion, and the constant struggle between fighting polytheism and calling for the Oneness of Allah Almighty.

The Prophet was born and did not grow up at the hands of his father, and soon he lost his mother at a young age, and the journey of loss continued until it reached his grandfather, then he was raised by his uncle, who acquired many qualities from him.

Therefore, this article is considered an indicative one that shows us the life of the Messenger from childhood, up to the invasions, and then his death.

Significance of the Prophet Muhammad in Islam

The Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the last of all the prophets and messengers to be sent, so he is called the Seal of the Messengers.

Where Allah sent the Messenger to spread the message of faith and the Islamic religion, including the provisions of Islam and the endorsement of servitude and oneness to Allah Almighty, and the Holy Qur’an was revealed to reinforce what the Messenger, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, commanded.

Despite the intense hardship that followed the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during his call to Islam, he was able to spread Islam and consolidate good relations through the Islamic conquests that he made during his life.

It is worth noting that the spread of this religion did not stop with the death of the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, but rather the Islamic conquests and conquests continued during the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs as well, as a complement to the Messenger’s message.

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The early life of the Prophet Muhammad

The messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born in Mecca, in what is now Saudi Arabia, in the year 570 CE. He was born into the Banu Hashim clan, which was one of the most respected clans of the Quraysh tribe.

The Prophet Muhammad’s father, Abdullah, died before his birth, and his mother, Aminah, died when he was only six years old. He was then raised by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, until his death two years later. He was then placed under the care of his uncle, Abu Talib, who raised him as his own son.

As a young man, Muhammad was known for his honesty, kindness, and his aversion to the immoral practices that were prevalent in Meccan society at the time. He was known as Al-Amin (the trustworthy) among his people, and was respected by all who knew him.

In his early adulthood, the messenger worked as a trader, and his travels took him to Syria, where he came into contact with Christians and Jews, and began to learn about their religions. He also became known for his wisdom and was sought out for advice by his fellow Meccans.

At the age of 40, he received his first revelation from Allah through the Angel Gabriel, while he was meditating in a cave on Mount Hira. 

This event marked the beginning of his prophethood and the start of a new era in human history. The Prophet Muhammad’s message of monotheism and social justice would eventually transform the Arabian Peninsula and spread throughout the world.

Birth and Childhood of the Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, was born on the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal in the year 570, which is the year known as the Year of Alfeel.

It is worth noting that the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, never met his father in his life, as his father died before his birth, and he grew up as an orphan under the care of his mother.

Who provided him with a healthy and peaceful environment of upbringing, overwhelmed with love and tenderness.

Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was also famous for many good qualities, such as honesty and trustworthiness, from his childhood, and Allah was paving the way for the message to come to him.

When the Prophet reached the age of six, his mother passed away to join his father. This child grieved a lot for his mother and father.

But he did not lose hope as his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib, took care of him. He learned a lot from his grandfather about the customs and traditions of the people of Quraysh.

The journey of learning with his grandfather did not last for more than two years, as his grandfather also passed away when he was eight years old, and a child also left him.

Then the protection of the Prophet passed to his uncle Abu Talib, one of the great leaders of the Quraish, who was known for his wisdom and reason.

Marriage and Family of the Prophet Muhammad

The prophet (peace be upon him) was married to Khadija bint Khuwaylid, a wealthy widow who was 15 years his senior. They had a very happy and loving marriage.

And Khadija was one of the strongest supporters of the Prophet in his early years of prophethood. She bore him six children, two sons (who died in infancy) and four daughters, including Fatima who is highly revered by Muslims.

After the death of Khadija, the Prophet married several other women, many of whom were widows or divorcees. His marriages were often strategic alliances or meant to solidify relationships with tribes or clans. Some of his wives were also considered to be among the most learned and pious women of their time. 

In total, the Prophet had 13 wives throughout his life, but after the revelation of the Quranic verse (33:52) limiting the number of wives to four, he did not marry again.

The Prophet also had a close and loving relationship with his family, including his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib, who would later become the fourth Caliph of the Muslim community. 

His grandsons Hassan and Hussain are also revered figures in Islam. The Prophet also had a number of companions who were considered to be like family to him, such as Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, who would later become the first three Caliphs after the Prophet’s death.

Call to prophethood

The Prophet received the revelation when he was forty years old, and the revelation continued to descend on him for exactly 23 years.

First revelation of the Prophet Muhammad

Mohamed peace be upon him – used to love to seclude himself and isolate himself from people, to distance himself from falsehood and its people. 

He used to climb to the cave of Hira to worship there and stay there for several days, contemplating the creation of the universe and observing it. He would look at the Kaaba from there, and when he felt longing in his heart, he would return to his family. 

This is one of the signs of his prophethood, as he never saw a dream except that it came true. This indicates that he was being prepared for prophethood and that he was not like other humans.

Regarding how the revelation came down when the Prophet – peace be upon him – reached the age of forty, and while he was in the cave of Hira’ worshiping.

And contemplating the creation of Allah, Jibril – peace be upon him – came to him in the form of a human, and entered upon the Prophet – peace be upon him – in his seclusion and he did not recognize him.

After what happened to the Prophet – peace be upon him – in the cave, fear crept into his heart and he began to tremble from the intensity of what he experienced in the cave. 

He quickly went to his wife Khadijah – may Allah be pleased with her – and entered with extreme fear apparent on his face, and trembling as if he had faced some kind of speech. 

He said to her, “Cover me, cover me,” meaning, protect him. When she covered him – may Allah be pleased with her – and his fear – peace be upon him – subsided, he told her what had happened to him.

She reassured him and calmed him down from his fear and began to enumerate his virtues and told him that whoever helps the needy, assists the poor, and maintains family ties, Allah will never forsake him.

The wife of the Prophet – peace be upon him – Khadijah – may Allah be pleased with her – had a cousin named Waraqah ibn Nawfal, who had converted to Christianity. 

They went to him to ask him about what had happened to the Prophet – peace be upon him. He said, “Holy, holy, and by the One in Whose Hand is Waraqah’s soul, if you have told me the truth, O Khadijah, then the same Lawh (tablets) which was brought to Musa has come to him.

” Then he said, “You will be denied, and you will be persecuted, and they will drive you out, and they will fight against you. 

If I were to live till that day, I would support Allah’s cause.” The Prophet – peace be upon him – was amazed by what Waraqah said about the treatment.

His people and clan towards him and Waraqah confirmed to him that every prophet whom Allah – the Highest – sends to his servants, is how his people treat him.

Early preaching of the Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet was characterized by many qualities that indicated his prophethood, as well as the prophets before him, including:

  • The honor of the Prophet Muhammad’s lineage and the dignity of his origin, as Allah made him from the best of His creation when He created them, from the best tribe, and the best family.
  • Justice, truthful speech, awe and dignity, renunciation of worldly desires, love of work and avoidance of comfort, frequent exposure to trials that increased his faith and certainty, and standing with the truth without seeking anything from this world for it.
  • Abandoning the approach of previous nations in following their fathers, and opposing the enemies of Allah even if they are from one’s own kin.
  • Abstaining from desires that lead their owner to painful punishment, due to the severity of fear of Allah’s punishment.
  • Immunity from falling into error in religious matters, and possessing the highest qualities of human perfection, a rank that only the messengers (peace be upon them) can attain.
  • Having noble moral virtues, indicating the path of the straight path, strength in the truth, magnanimity of the soul, and avoiding profanity and foul language in speech. 

The Prophet was brave, forgiving, generous, and the most generous of people in doing good. He never refused anyone who asked for something from him.

  • His patience and forbearance towards those who were ignorant before him, and the more ignorant his opponent became, the more patient and enduring he became (peace be upon him).

The Hijra

When the Prophet faced a lot of harm at the hands of the people of Mecca, he decided to migrate, along with those who followed him, to Medina, to live among its people.

Hijra of the Prophet Muhammad to Medina

The Muslims migrated to Medina to preserve their religion and themselves, and to establish a safe homeland where they could live according to the principles of their faith. 

Abu Salama and his family were the first to migrate, followed by Suhayb who gave up all his wealth to the Quraysh in order to unify Allah and migrate for His cause. 

Thus, the Muslims followed each other in migration until Mecca was almost empty of Muslims, which led the Quraysh to fear the consequences of the Muslims’ migration.

They gathered in the meeting house to find a way to get rid of the Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him.

And eventually decided to take one young man from each tribe to strike the Prophet with a single blow, so that his blood would be scattered among the tribes and the Banu Hashim would not be able to seek revenge.

On the same night, Allah permitted His Prophet to migrate, so he chose Abu Bakr as his companion, and left Ali in his bed, instructing him to return the trusts he had to their owners. 

The Prophet hired Abdullah ibn Urayqit to guide him to Medina, and they set out to the cave of Thawr. When the Quraysh learned of their failed plan and the Prophet’s migration, they began searching for him. 

One of them reached the cave, and Abu Bakr was very afraid for the Prophet, but he reassured him, and they stayed in the cave for three days until the situation calmed down and the search for them stopped. 

Then they resumed their journey to Medina, and arrived there in the thirteenth year of the mission, on the twelfth day of Rabi’ al-Awwal. 

They stayed for fourteen nights in the tribe of Banu Amr ibn Awf, during which the Prophet established Quba Mosque, the first mosque built in Islam, and began laying the foundations of the Islamic state.

Founding of the first Muslim community

The city of Medina was in need of an order that would regulate and guarantee the rights of its individuals. The Prophet wrote a document that served as a constitution between the immigrants, the supporters, and the Jews, and this document was of great importance. 

It served as the constitution that regulates the state’s internal and external affairs, and the Prophet established its provisions in accordance with the provisions of Islamic law. 

It was also fair in its treatment of the Jews. Its provisions indicated four of the provisions of Islamic law, which are:

  • Islam is the religion that works to unify and consolidate Muslims.
  • The Islamic society only functions through the mutual support and solidarity of all individuals, with each person bearing their own responsibility.
  • Justice is a detailed and precise phenomenon. Muslims always turn to the judgment of Allah (Glory be to Him) as it is stated in His law.

The Prophet’s later years

The Prophet lived for sixty-three years, and he devoted the last third of his life to spreading the message of Islam and defining the Islamic religion.

Military campaigns of the Prophet Muhammad

The Prophet -peace be upon him- participated in a number of battles and expeditions with the aim of establishing the truth and calling people to the unity of Allah, by removing the obstacles that hinder the spread of the call. 

It should be noted that the expeditions that the Prophet engaged in were a practical example of the noble warrior and respect for humanity.

This came after relations became tense between the Messenger of Allah in Medina and the tribes outside it, which led to several military confrontations between the different parties. 

The fighting witnessed by the Prophet was called a “ghazwa” and was not conducted in secrecy. 

The following are some details of the expeditions that the Prophet -peace be upon him- and the Muslims with him fought, and among the expeditions that the Prophet fought are the following:

1- The Battle of Badr

Ghazwa e Badar Which took place in the second year of the Hijra, on the seventeenth of Ramadan, was caused by the Muslims intercepting a Quraysh caravan led by Abu Sufyan on its way to Mecca. 

Quraysh rushed to protect its caravan, and a battle ensued between the Muslims and Quraysh. The number of polytheists was a thousand fighters, while the number of Muslims was 313 men. 

The battle ended with the victory of the Muslims, killing seventy of the polytheists and capturing seventy others who were later released in exchange for ransom.

2- The Battle of Uhud

Ghazwa Uhud took place in the third year of the Hijra, on Saturday, the fifteenth of Shawwal. Its cause was Quraysh’s desire to avenge what had happened to them at the Battle of Badr. 

The number of polytheists was three thousand fighters, while the number of Muslims was around seven hundred men, fifty of whom were stationed on the mountain. 

When the Muslims thought they had won the battle, they began to gather the spoils, but Khalid ibn Al-Waleed seized the opportunity and attacked the Muslims from behind the mountain, which led to the victory of the polytheists over the Muslims.

3- The Battle of Banu Nadir

Ghazwa Banu Nadir involved a tribe of Jews who broke their agreement with the Messenger of Allah. 

The Messenger ordered them to leave the city, and the leader of the hypocrites, Abdullah ibn Ubayy, advised them to stay in their positions in exchange for support from fighters. 

The battle ended with the evacuation of the tribe from the city. The Battle of the Trench, also known as the Battle of the Ahzab, took place in the fifth year of the Hijra. 

Its cause was the leaders of Banu Nadir inciting the Meccans to fight against the Messenger of Allah. 

Salman Al-Farsi advised the Messenger to dig a trench, hence the name of this battle. The battle ended with the victory of the Muslims.

3- The Battle of Banu Qurayza

Ghazwa Banu Qurayza is the next battle after the Battle of the Trench and took place in the fifth year of the Hijra. 

The reason for it was the breaking of the treaty by the Jews of Banu Qurayza with the Prophet Muhammad, their alliance with Quraysh, and their desire to betray the Muslims. 

The Prophet went out to them with three thousand fighters from the Muslims, and they were besieged for twenty-five nights until they surrendered to the Prophet’s orders.

4- Hudaybiyyah Treaty

It was in the sixth year of the Hijrah in the month of Dhu al-Qa’dah, after the Prophet Muhammad saw in a dream that he.

And his companions were performing the Umrah pilgrimage to the Kaaba while in a state of peace and with their heads shaved. 

He then ordered the Muslims to prepare for the Umrah and they entered into the state of Ihram at Dhu al-Hulayfah.

They carried only the pilgrim’s staff to show the Quraysh that they did not come to fight. However, the Quraysh prevented them from entering Makkah. 

The Prophet sent Uthman bin Affan to negotiate with the Quraysh and rumors spread that Uthman had been killed. 

The Prophet then prepared for battle but sent Suhail bin Amr to negotiate peace with the Quraysh. 

The agreement was that there would be no fighting for ten years, and anyone who came to the Muslims from the Quraysh would be returned.

But the Quraysh would not be required to return anyone who went to them from the Muslims. The Muslims would end their Ihram and return to Madinah.

5- Ghazwa Khaybar

Ghazwa Khaybar Happened in the seventh year of the Hijri calendar, in the last month of Muharram. This was after the Prophet of Islam saw the need to eliminate the gatherings of the Jews, which posed a threat to the Muslims. 

The Prophet set out to achieve his goal and the matter ended in favor of the Muslims. The Battle of Mu’tah took place in the eighth year of the Hijri calendar, in the month of Jumada Al-Awwal. 

It was caused by the anger of the Prophet over the killing of Harith bin Umair Al-Azdi. The Prophet ordered Zaid bin Harithah to lead the Muslims and recommended the leadership of Ja’far if Zaid was injured, and then the leadership of Abdullah bin Rawahah after Ja’far. 

He asked them to invite people to Islam before starting the fighting, and the battle ended with the victory of the Muslims.

6- The Conquest of Mecca (Al Fath)

It is also known as Fatḥ Makkah, which took place in the eighth year of the Hijri calendar in the month of Ramadan. 

It was caused by the attack of Banu Bakr on Banu Khuza’ah, which resulted in the killing of some of the latter. The Prophet of Islam and those with him prepared to march toward Mecca, and Abu Sufyan converted to Islam. 

The Prophet granted amnesty to those who entered his house, as a mark of respect for his position. The Prophet entered Mecca triumphantly, thanking God for the clear victory. 

He circled around the Kaaba, destroyed the idols, prayed two units of prayer, and forgave the people of Quraysh.

7- The Battle of Hunayn

Ghazwa Hunayn took place in the eighth year after the Hijra on the tenth day of Shawwal. It was caused by the belief of the chiefs of the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes that the Prophet would fight them after the conquest of Mecca. 

They decided to take the initiative and go to war, and the Prophet and those who had embraced Islam with him marched out to meet them until they reached the Hunayn Valley. 

The victory was initially with Hawazin and Thaqif, but it turned to the Muslims after the steadfastness of the Prophet and those with him.

Death and Legacy of the Prophet Muhammad

When the Prophet (peace be upon him) became ill, he was struck by a severe headache in his head while returning from a funeral in Al-Baqi. 

The pain was so severe that he put a bandage on his head, and when the pain intensified, he asked his wife for permission to spend his illness period at Aisha’s house. 

Fadl bin Abbas and Ali bin Abi Talib took him to her room, and five days before his death, his body temperature rose, and his illness worsened. 

Then he felt a lightness in his body, so he entered the mosque with a bandage on his head and delivered a sermon to the people while sitting on his pulpit and praying with them at noon.

The Prophet prayed with the Muslims all the prayers until Thursday, four days before his death. When he attended the evening prayer on Thursday, his illness worsened. 

He asked repeatedly about the people’s prayer after he was unconscious, and they told him they were waiting for him. Then he ordered Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.

Two days before his death, the Prophet found improvement in his body and went to the mosque. Abu Bakr was leading the people in prayer.

And when he saw him, he asked him to lead the prayer. The Prophet gestured to him not to delay, and Abu Bakr led seventeen prayers during the Prophet’s lifetime.

The Prophet began to die when the sun rose on Monday, and he was next to Aisha. She leaned him against her and he died in her house and in her room. 

When the agony of death intensified, he acknowledged that death had agonies. He raised his finger and gazed upwards. 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) died on the twelfth day of Rabi’ al-Awwal in the eleventh year of the Hijrah, which corresponds to June 633 AD, at the age of sixty-three.


In conclusion, the prophet Muhammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, was born in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. He was breastfed by Halima Al-Sa’diyyah, and he was raised by his mother, grandfather, and uncle. 

The Messenger Muhammad was also characterized by many good qualities since his childhood, which are represented in justice, wisdom, preponderance in the mind, and then sobriety in speech.

The revelation began with the Prophet during his worship in the cave of Hira, and the revelation continued for 23 years, as the Messenger migrated from Mecca to Medina.

This migration had a great impact on the Islamic religion, and the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, carried out many invasions and wars under his leadership.

The Islamic religion was also known for spreading justice among Muslims and brotherhood, which led to the entry of many into the Islamic religion.

As the call of Islam remained valid until the Prophet died at the age of 63 years, and the Islamic religion is still performing its rituals and principles to our present time.

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