The Quranic Tajweed is considered one of the noblest and greatest sciences in Islamic Sharia. This is because it is closely related to the Book of Allah, and how to recite it with proficiency and reflection.
The people of the Qur’an and the science of Tajweed are those whom Allah has chosen and distinguished from others among humans by memorizing His words and making them servants to His book.
They established the rules and principles that regulate the Muslim’s recitation of the Qur’an and preserve it from any distortion or mispronunciation.
The scholars of the Qur’an and the related sciences have referred to what they have established as rules and principles derived from the recitation of the Prophet, peace be upon him.
Similarly, adherence to the matters of Tajweed is considered a religious obligation, and the reciter of the Qur’an will be sinful if they neglect it. This includes anything that leads to a change in the structure or corrupts the meaning.
Origins and Significance of Quranic Tajweed
The Quranic Tajweed is one of the things that a Muslim must pay attention to while starting to memorize or recite the Qur’an, because of its great benefits.
Historical Background and origin of Tajweed
The Prophet Muhammad was keen to teach the Companions the Qur’an and to perfect their recitation, just as he received it from Gabriel. Many of the Companions mastered the Qur’an, including Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, Zaid ibn Thabit, Abu bin Ka’b, Mu’adh ibn Jabal, and others.
The first person to establish the principles of this science was Imam Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad Al-Farahidi. The first person to write about it was Imam Abu Al-Khair Muhammad ibn Muhammad Al-Jazari in his book “Al-Tamheed in the Science of Tajweed” in the third century of the Hijra.
Imam Abu Ubayd Qasim ibn Salam compiled the different recitations in his book called “Kitab al-Qira’at” by extracting the rules of this science by studying the recitations of famous and proficient readers.
The research in the field of extracting other rules of Tajweed continued, and books on this science were published, explaining the principles of recitation and the correct method of Tajweed.
Quranic verses that emphasize the importance of Tajweed
The proper recitation of the Noble Qur’an holds immense importance. Reciting the Noble Qur’an is among the greatest acts of worship and the best deeds through which a servant draws closer to Allah Almighty.
Allah Almighty encouraged His Prophet (peace be upon him) to engage in this worship, and He has promised a great reward for the reciters of the Qur’an.
In order for a servant to attain the complete reward and the immense blessings promised by Allah Almighty, they must recite the Qur’an in the manner that the Prophet (peace be upon him) recited it, which has been transmitted continuously and confirmed by authentic Prophetic traditions.
This manner can only be achieved by adhering to the principles and foundations of recitation, the rules of recitation, and considering the rulings of recitation.
Furthermore, complete and perfect memorization of the Noble Qur’an entails not only memorizing the content but also preserving the proper way of recitation, including accurate pronunciation and avoiding any errors, deviations, or alterations.
As for how to attain the correct way of recitation, it is through receiving instruction and guidance from qualified teachers and observing their recitation. This method ensures a beautiful voice in recitation, excellence in melodious recitation, and precision in performance.
The role of Tajweed in preserving the Quran’s purity
The science of Tajweed is considered one of the noblest and most important sciences, with numerous benefits for the reciter of the Noble Qur’an. Among the prominent benefits are the following:
- By studying Tajweed, one preserves and safeguards their tongue from errors and mispronunciations in reciting the Book of Allah Almighty.
- Through the application of Tajweed in reciting the Quranic verses, the servant attains great reward and abundant blessings from Allah Almighty.
- Reciting the Quranic verses with Tajweed becomes a means of making people love recitation of the Noble Qur’an and listening to it. It also encourages them to be diligent in performing prayers at the mosque and participating in Taraweeh prayers during the month of Ramadan. All of this is achieved when the imam recites the Noble Qur’an in his prayers with proper recitation and Tajweed rules.
- Tajweed helps improve the articulation of the reciter’s tongue and trains them in eloquence.
Key Principles of Quranic Tajweed Rules Explanation
The Tajweed of the Quran is based on a number of rules that are concerned with pronouncing the words of the Qur’an correctly, and in this paragraph, we will learn about the most prominent of these rules.
Here are some key terms related to Quranic Tajweed along with their definitions and explanations:
- Tajweed: Tajweed refers to the science of proper pronunciation, intonation, and recitation of the Quran. It encompasses the rules and guidelines for correctly articulating Arabic letters, observing the correct vowel lengths, and applying various recitation techniques to convey the intended meaning and beauty of the Quran.
- Makharij: Makharij are the points of articulation of the Arabic letters in the mouth and throat. Each letter has a specific point of origin or exit from where its sound is produced. Understanding the makharij is essential for accurate pronunciation. For example, the letter “ب” (ba) is pronounced by closing the lips, while the letter “ج” (jeem) is pronounced by bringing the tongue close to the upper front teeth.
- Sifaat: Sifaat refers to the characteristics or attributes of the Arabic letters. These characteristics include attributes such as heaviness (tafkhim), lightness (tarqiq), emphasis (tashdeed), and softness (lina). Understanding the sifaat helps in differentiating between similar letters and producing their correct sounds.
- Harakat: Harakat are the short vowels (diacritical marks) placed above or below the Arabic letters. They indicate the pronunciation of the vowels, which affect the meaning and grammatical structure of words. The harakat include fatha (a short “a” sound), kasra (a short “i” sound), and damma (a short “u” sound), among others.
- Madd: Madd refers to the elongation or prolongation of specific vowels in the Quran. It is indicated by a horizontal line above a letter. Madd is categorized into two types: Madd Asli (original prolongation) and Madd Far’i (secondary prolongation). Correctly applying madd adds beauty and rhythm to the recitation.
- Ghunnah: Ghunnah is the nasalization of certain letters in specific circumstances. It involves producing a nasal sound by resonating through the nose while pronouncing the letter. The nasalization occurs primarily with the letters “ن” (noon) and “م” (meem) when followed by specific letters.
- Qalqalah: Qalqalah refers to the echoing or rebounding sound produced by certain letters when pronounced with a slight bounce or recoil. The letters that exhibit qalqalah are “ق” (qaf), “ط” (ta), “ب” (ba), “ج” (jeem), and “د” (dal). The qalqalah effect adds vibrancy and emphasis to the recitation.
Importance of proper pronunciation and enunciation in Tajweed
Proper pronunciation or its attempt to extract the Qur’an improves the functions of the speech system and improves its functional performance.
The Qur’anic exits for letters and words represent the correct Arabic language, which is what the therapist of speech and speech disorders seeks to control the exits to the alphabets of the troubled person, especially the adults among them over the children.
The significance of the pause and melody (Maqam) in Quranic recitation
The pause (waqf) and melody (maqam) play significant roles in Quranic recitation, adding depth, beauty, and a unique rhythm to the recitation of the Quran. Here’s an explanation of their significance:
1- Pause (Waqf):
The pause, or waqf, refers to stopping at specific points during the recitation of the Quran. It is indicated by symbols in the written text of the Quran, guiding the reciter on when to pause and for how long. The waqf allows for a moment of reflection, understanding, and contemplation of the verses.
Significance of Waqf:
- Enhances Comprehension: Pausing at appropriate points allows the listener and reciter to better understand the meaning of the verses. It enables the absorption of the message and encourages reflection upon its significance.
- Emphasizes Important Ideas: The waqf helps to highlight important ideas, concepts, and shifts in the discourse of the Quran. It provides emphasis and creates a distinct structure within the recitation, guiding the listener’s attention to crucial aspects of the verses.
- Facilitates Correct Understanding: The proper placement of pauses helps avoid misinterpretation or distortion of the Quranic message. It ensures that the intended meaning is conveyed accurately and preserves the integrity of the text.
- Improves Articulation and Delivery: By incorporating appropriate pauses, the reciter can articulate the words and phrases more effectively. It allows for clear enunciation, control of breath, and a balanced rhythm, enhancing the overall delivery and eloquence of the recitation.
2- Melody (Maqam):
Maqam refers to the melodic modes or musical scales employed in the recitation of the Quran. Each maqam has its distinct set of notes, intervals, and melodic patterns. The reciter transitions between different maqamat to create a melodious and captivating recitation.
Significance of Maqam:
- Beautifies Recitation: The melodic patterns of different maqamat add beauty, elegance, and a pleasing aesthetic to the recitation of the Quran. The varying melodic tones and intervals create a captivating and harmonious experience for the listener.
- Engages the Listener: The melodic aspect of Quranic recitation captures the listener’s attention and evokes emotional responses. It enhances the impact of the verses and helps in creating a deep connection between the reciter, listener, and the divine message.
- Preserves Oral Tradition: The maqamat have been passed down through generations, preserving the rich oral tradition of Quranic recitation. By adhering to specific maqamat, reciters contribute to the continuity and preservation of this ancient art form.
- Reflects the Verses’ Themes: The choice of maqam can reflect the theme, mood, or content of the verses being recited. Different maqamat carry distinct emotional connotations, allowing the reciter to match the tone of the recitation with the intended message of the verses.
The use of Arabic phonetics and phonology in Tajweed
This science emerged within the realm of the language of the Noble Qur’an and developed through its recitation and Tajweed.
Quranic studies became intertwined with the science of phonetics, considering the Qur’an as the source of phonetic studies among the Arabs. This science of phonetics was established to serve the Qur’an.
Due to the strong connection between phonetics and Tajweed, we find that the discussions of Tajweed in the Arabic language revolve around the science of phonetics.
The initial phonetic studies had an educational purpose, aiming to improve pronunciation and enhance performance, particularly in the recitation of the Noble Qur’an.
Abdul Aziz Al-Dab’ in his book “Al-Mustalah Al-Sawti” states, “The science of phonetics was a distinct and well-defined science.
And there is no better evidence than the fact that Tajweed, which employed terminologies found in phonetic discussions, is known to scholars of Tajweed and language.
If Tajweed did not limit its studies to the recitation of the Qur’an, phonetics would have been considered the science of sounds in the Arabic language.”
The earliest beginnings of this science can be traced back to Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali, as mentioned by Samee’ Abu Ma’li in his book “Derasat Lughawiyyah.”
He says, “Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du’ali was the first to recognize the functional and semantic significance of sound because elevation, annunciation, and case or the Sukoon, fatha, and kasra are phonetic differentiations that indicate their respective worlds and distinctions.”
The story of this science began with Abu Al-Aswad, who recognized this matter. Additionally, Ziyad ibn Abih, the governor of Basra, requested him to establish a system for distinguishing the grammatical inflections of Allah’s book to avoid intonation.
Al-Khalil was the first to apply the phonetic sound system systematically in linguistic studies. Muhammad Fareed states in his book “Al-Sawt Al-Lughawi wa Dalalatuhu fi al-Qur’an Al-Kareem,” “The credit for phonetic studies goes to Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad Al-Farahidi, who established the foundations of this science.”
This was confirmed by the scholar Prājāstrāstr in his statement: “The first to establish the principles of this science among the Arabs was Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad.
The science of phonetics initially constituted a part of the branches of grammar, then it was borrowed by performers and reciters, who added many details taken from the Noble Qur’an.”
Benefits of Quranic Tajweed
Studying the science of Tajweed has great and great benefits that bring good and benefit to Muslims, and below we will learn about these benefits.
The importance of intonation stems from the fact that:
- Tajweed gives the letters their rights and due so that the reader of the Qur’an can master reading
- A way to rise above the error in reading the Qur’an, so that the reader will receive the pleasure of God Almighty
- The reader will have a great reward, and on the Day of Resurrection, he will be gathered with the honorable and righteous.
- Tracking how the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him.
- Whoever contradicts this characteristic, and reads the Qur’an according to his whim, has violated the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
The Impact of Tajweed on One’s Relationship with the Quran
The benefits of Tajweed of the Quran are great and include:
- Read the Holy Quran as God Almighty loves.
- Meditation on the Holy Quran and understanding its meanings.
- Preserving the Holy Qur’an from any addition, deletion, or change in it.
- Extracting the rulings of Sharia in their correct form.
The positive impact of Tajweed on one’s personal and social life
Studying the science of tajweed is very interesting, and it also has a positive effect on the Muslims, which is represented in the following:
- Studying Tajweed strengthens the slave’s relationship with his Lord, As the study of intonation helps the reader to reflect on the verses and understand the meaning better.
- Developing and strengthening the Arabic language: Tajweed is concerned with studying letters and how they are pronounced well. Therefore, it is a means for developing the Arabic language.
- Improving the recitation of the Qur’an: where the Muslim becomes a better reader and master of the provisions of recitation
Common Errors in Quranic Recitation
It is expected that a Muslim will make some mistakes in Quran recitation, especially if he is not familiar with the rules of intonation, as the purpose of these rules is to protect the tongue from falling into melody or distortion.
Common mistakes made by non-Arabic speakers in Quranic recitation
Non-Arabic speakers may encounter some common mistakes when reciting the Quran. Here are a few of them:
- Mispronunciation of Arabic Letters: Arabic has sounds that may not exist in other languages. Non-Arabic speakers often struggle with pronouncing certain Arabic letters accurately. For example, the letters “ع” (ayn) and “ح” (ha) have unique sounds that require practice to master.
- Incorrect Vowel Length: Arabic has short vowels (harakat) that affect the pronunciation and meaning of words. Non-Arabic speakers may neglect to observe the correct length of these vowels, leading to mispronunciation. Differentiating between short and long vowels is crucial for accurate recitation.
- Inconsistent Application of Tajweed Rules: Tajweed rules govern the proper pronunciation and intonation of the Quran. Non-Arabic speakers may have difficulty applying these rules consistently due to a lack of familiarity or understanding. This can result in the incorrect pronunciation of letters or not observing proper stops and elongations.
- Lack of Familiarity with Arabic Script: Non-Arabic speakers may struggle with reading Arabic script, which can lead to errors in recitation. It is important to learn the Arabic alphabet and practice reading Quranic texts regularly to improve familiarity and accuracy.
- Ignoring Proper Pauses: The Quranic recitation requires appropriate pauses and breath control. Non-Arabic speakers may neglect these pauses or insert them in incorrect places, affecting the flow and meaning of the verses.
- Insufficient Knowledge of Meaning: Understanding the meaning of the Quranic verses is essential for proper recitation. Non-Arabic speakers may focus solely on pronunciation without comprehending the message. This can lead to a lack of connection with the words being recited.
Tips to avoid these mistakes and improve one’s recitation
To overcome these mistakes, non-Arabic speakers should:
- Seek Tajweed guidance from knowledgeable teachers or scholars who can correct their pronunciation and provide guidance on applying Tajweed rules.
- Enroll in Arabic language courses to improve their understanding of Arabic script, pronunciation, and vocabulary.
- Regularly listen to proficient reciters to develop a better ear for proper pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation.
- Utilize transliterations and translations to grasp the meaning of the verses being recited, enabling a deeper connection with the Quran.
Tajweed Rules in Practice
There are many examples in the Holy Qur’an of the provisions of intonation, and below we will discuss some of these examples.
Practical examples of Tajweed rules and how to apply them
The rules of Nun Sakinah and Tanween are divided into four main rules, which are: Izhar, Idgham, Iqlab, and Ikhfa. The following provides a brief explanation of each rule along with examples:
- Izhar: It is the pronunciation of the letter after Nun Sakinah or Tanween as it is, without any assimilation. The letters of Izhar are: Hamzah, Haa, ‘Ayn, Ghayn, Haa, and Khaa. Examples include: “min ahli” (from its people), “min ‘ilm” (from knowledge), “faseen ghadiban” (then they will be angry).
- Ikhfa: It is the pronunciation of the letter between Izhar and Idgham, and it has fifteen letters: Sad, Tha, Tha, Kaf, Jeem, Sheen, Qaf, Seen, Dal, Taa, Zaa, Faa, Taa, Dad, and Dhaa. Examples include: “min dhahab” (from gold), “nafsin tha’iqah” (a tasting soul), “ankalan” (shackles), “min dabbah” (from an animal).
- Iqlab: It is the transformation of the letter’s position into the position of another letter, with the Ghunnah (nasal sound) being pronounced. The letter involved in Iqlab is Ba (ب), so when Ba meets Nun Sakinah or Tanween, it is changed to Meem while being hidden. Examples include: “anbi’hum” (inform them), “yu’min bi-rabbihi” (believes in his Lord), “linasfa’a bi-al-nasiyah” (to strike with the front).
- Idgham: It is the merging of one letter with another. In Idgham, the letter Nun Sakinah or Tanween is merged into a letter of Idgham. The letters of Idgham are: Ya, Ra, Meem, Laam, Waw, and Noon. Four of these letters are merged with Ghunnah, namely: Ya, Noon, Waw, and Meem, while two letters are merged without Ghunnah: Laam and Ra. Examples of Idgham rules found in the Quran include: “in yaqooloon” (if they say), “amshaajin nabtalihi” (twisted bunches), “‘eeshatin raadiyatin” (a contented life).
Tips on how to master Tajweed through practice and guidance
Of course, there are many steps that can help you master Tajweed, and you can also take these steps:
- Seek information: The most important step is to search for sources or information that you will refer to and rely on during your learning and research journey.
- Seek a good teacher: Your pursuit of mastering Tajweed, understanding the rules, and applying them effectively can only be achieved through studying and practicing under a proficient and knowledgeable teacher in the rules of Tajweed and recitation.
- Focus on developing the Arabic language: As we have mentioned in our previous articles related to Tajweed, studying the Arabic language is also a very important part for the learner to become proficient in reciting the Quran.
- Understand the content of the rules: If you want to apply Tajweed rules during recitation, you should first have a good understanding of the Tajweed rules.
Resources for Learning Quranic Tajweed
Of course, there are many sources that help you learn and master the recitation of the Qur’an, including electronic resources such as websites and platforms, and below we will learn about these sources in detail.
Books and online resources for learning Tajweed
Among the books that you can refer to during your journey of learning Tajweed are the following:
- “Al-Tahdeed fi al-Itqan wa al-Tajweed” (Book)
- “Al-Tamheed fi ‘ilm al-Tajweed”
- “Al-Daqaiq al-Muhkamah fi Sharh al-Muqaddimah”
- “Al-Ra’ayah li Tajweed al-Qira’ah wa Tahqeeq Lafdh al-Tilawah” (Book)
- “Al-Rawdah al-Nadiyyah Sharh Matn al-Jazariyyah”
- “Al-Muqaddimah al-Jazariyyah”
- “Al-Muneer fi Ahkam al-Tajweed”
- “Al-Mawdih fi al-Tajweed” (Book)
- “Tuhfat al-Atfal”
- “Fath al-Muta’al Sharh Tuhfat al-Atfal”
- In addition to that, you can register with us on the Hamil Al Quran platform to learn the Quran Tajweed online.
Importance of finding a qualified teacher for Tajweed lessons
Hiring a teacher with sufficient experience who is fluent in the provisions of intonation is very important and necessary during your learning journey.
A teacher with sufficient experience can explain the information in an easy and simple way that suits your mental abilities, in addition to that, it will help you to apply the provisions during recitation.
Tips on how to make Tajweed a regular part of one’s life
Incorporating Tajweed into your daily life requires commitment and consistency. Here are some tips to help you make Tajweed a regular part of your life:
- Seek Knowledge: Take the time to study and understand the rules of Tajweed. Enroll in a Tajweed course or find reputable resources such as books, online courses, or local scholars who can guide you. Understanding the rules will enable you to apply Tajweed correctly in your recitation.
- Establish a Routine: Set aside a specific time each day to recite the Quran with Tajweed. Consistency is key, so make it a habit to recite at the same time every day. You can choose a time that works best for you, whether it’s early morning, after Fajr prayer, or before going to bed.
- Start with Short Portions: Begin with shorter surahs or passages from the Quran. Gradually increase the length as you become more comfortable and confident in your recitation. Breaking it down into smaller parts will make it easier to focus on applying Tajweed correctly.
- Recite with Tajweed Audio: Listen to recitations by skilled Quran reciters who emphasize Tajweed. This will help you develop a good ear for proper pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation. Many online platforms and mobile apps provide Tajweed audio recitations that you can follow along with.
- Seek Feedback: If possible, recite in front of someone knowledgeable in Tajweed who can provide feedback on your recitation. They can point out any mistakes or areas for improvement. Alternatively, you can record yourself and listen back to identify any errors.
- Practice Patience: Tajweed is a skill that takes time to develop. Be patient with yourself and understand that progress comes with consistent effort. Don’t get discouraged by mistakes but rather use them as learning opportunities to improve.
- Reflect on the Meaning: While focusing on Tajweed, also contemplate the meaning of the verses you recite. Understanding the message of the Quran adds depth to your recitation and enhances your connection with the words of Allah.
In conclusion, learning the Quranic Tajweed is one of the aspects that a Muslim should take care of, especially since this science is concerned with how to pronounce the words of the Qur’an correctly without making mistakes during recitation.
Therefore, we have mentioned to you many sources that help you in learning the Tajweed of Quran, including you can register with us in Hamil alquran to ensure the effectiveness of learning at the hands of well-versed experts in the sciences of the Qur’an, on top of which is intonation.